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N.K. Jemison's debut fantasy trilogy "combines the politics of George R. R. Martin with the magic of Neil Gaiman. The trilogy will open with The Hundred Thousand Kingdoms in Fall 2009." The description is taken from Orbit's announcement of the deal, so don't just take my word for it! She's here today to talk about:

TEN EPIC FANTASY THEMES WE DON'T SEE ENOUGH

So here I am, a brand-new novelist whose book (The Hundred Thousand Kingdoms, epic New Weird romantic hard fantasy forthcoming from Orbit Books in Fall 2009, yes this will be on the quiz) isn't even out yet, and Lucienne asks me to write something for Epic Fantasy Week.

And I think, "Yikes! Who the heck is going to care what I have to say as a writer, when they can't even see my work and decide whether I know what I'm talking about?" So I decided to tackle this from the perspective of a reader.

Which is completely apropos, because I'm a voracious reader. I became a writer largely because my favorite authors weren't putting out often enough to keep me entertained. How's that for motivation: stark, simple greed! But I've had a bigger problem over the years, which is that my favorite genre -- fantasy -- tends to cover the same themes and tropes a just little too often. Don't get me wrong, I've got no problem with good solid stick-to-your-ribs comfort fiction. But every so often (OK, very often in my case), a girl craves something a little different.

So here are the ten things I crave most in my own fantasy reading. Some of these I've incorporated into my own novels, naturally, and some are being explored by other writers, but once again I'm speaking from a position of greed: I want more!


10. True Ensemble Casts.

OK, so an elf, a dwarf, a man, and a halfling walk into a bar --

Novel plot? Bad joke? Hard to say, considering that most four-person-team fantasies are really just thinly-veiled Dungeons and Dragons sessions put down on paper. I don't honestly mind this kind of fantasy; it is comfort fiction, after all. But let's talk about the whole quartet for a moment. Epic fantasies are supposed to be epic, right? Casts of thousands, plots that range from world-shaking to universe-shaping, mortal peril around every corner, all that? In reality, victory in such grand sagas is usually a team effort. Why is this not more often the case in fiction?

It seems to me that a lot of fantasies focus too much on a single character. Oh, sure, the secondary characters get to do important things, like surf down a staircase on the back of a shield while making impossibly accurate shots with a bow and arrow (all right, so I'm a fan of Peter Jackson's LotR, you caught me). But do we ever come to understand these characters' motivations? Do we hear about the loved ones they've left at home, their hobbies, their fears? Do their deaths -- because they often die -- mean anything except to motivate the protagonist?

This seems to be a problem for American fantasy authors in particular, and it probably stems from our love of rugged individualism. Which is all well and good, but at some point this rugged individualism begins to defy logic and the rules of good storytelling. There's a lot of entertainment value in seeing people working together for the good of the team, too.

I'll send a shout-out here to Lynn Flewelling, whose Nightrunner series is a perfect example of what I'm talking about. It could so easily have become Seregil And His Amazing Friends. Instead a key point of the series has been the growth of a character who started out secondary -- Alec -- into a protagonist of equal stature and full partnership. Other characters get plenty of time in the spotlight too. But since Ms. Flewelling's just not cranking this stuff out fast enough for my tastes, let's see if we can get some more authors out there doing this.


9. Settings Other Than "McAncient McEurope".

I don't actually mind epic fantasies set in ancient Rome, medieval England, the Renaissance, or created analogues thereof. I've read some good ones, as I'm sure you all have. But really now, is that all there is? Human history is so rich and varied. Why are 90% of the epic fantasies out there concentrated on a single landmass? Why are so many clustered around a handful of eras in that landmass' history? Let's see some epics set in the Mayan or Malian Empires, or fictional versions thereof. Or Europe, but in the 1920s instead of the medieval era; let's see some elven flappers! We're beginning to see a few more epic fantasies set in ancient China and Japan, and a smidge of Eastern Europe, but not nearly enough.

And why is the MacGuffin of Power never in any place really remote, like Antarctica or Australia?


8. Beta Males and Alpha Females.

Here I'm going to pull some language from the new kid on the block: the paranormal romance genre. That genre has put a name to something that's abounded in epic fantasy since the days of Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser: the alpha male. These are the classic fantasy-novel heroes: stalwart, implacable when facing evil, act-first-think-later kinds of guys. Women want them, men envy them, children want to be them. Epic fantasies have actually done a pretty decent job of bringing in beta males: insecure, reluctant guys who would rather stay at home and read a book than go slay a dragon. Unfortunately, epic fantasy tends to force these guys into the alpha male role as a form of character development. I guess that makes sense; the Armies of Light aren't likely to risk their lives for some self-effacing geek. But the unfortunate result of this is that nearly all male protagonists in epic fantasy, whether they start out as such or not, end up as alpha males.

The change I want to see here is simple: let the betas stay beta. Let's see more stories told from the PoV of the hero's accountant, or shoeshine boy, and don't make them king at the end. I fell in love with Mary Renault's depiction of Alexander the Great -- as framed by Bagoas, his pleasure slave, in The Persian Boy. Of course, beta males don't always have to act as sidekicks or shadows for alphas; they can be great themselves. Stephen R. Donaldson does an excellent job of this with his Thomas Covenant chronicles, focusing on a hero who's not only reluctant, but downright contemptible and questionably sane. This freshens an otherwise typical get-the-MacGuffin/fight-the-dark-lord fantasy framework.

By the same token, I'm pleased to see that in the past few years there's been an explosion of alpha females in fantasy. For far too long we've been burdened with female characters who existed solely as an object for the male protagonist to fight over, yearn for, avenge, etc. These women, however "feisty" or "spirited", were inherently beta because they lacked agency. Now in urban fantasy and paranormal romance we see a preponderance of female protagonists who are truly alphas: their personalities vary, but their choices matter for their own sake, not for their impact on the male hero.

But despite their popularity in these newer subgenres, women like this have only recently begun to penetrate epic fantasy. This progress has been largely thanks to pioneer authors like Tanith Lee and Ursula LeGuin, and more recently Karen Miller and Jacqueline Carey. So let's see some more!

7. Fantasy Without Magic
.

In 1987, Ellen Kushner's Swordspoint: A Melodrama of Manners showed us all how it could be done: epic fantasy without magic. Instead of magic, she dazzled readers with an intricate alternate-world society of rogues and morally ambiguous protagonists, political schemes as deadly as (and often culminating in) duels, and a hero whose skill with a sword was nearly magical. This book ushered in a golden age of epic fantasies which shunned the use of magic in favor of dazzling socioeconomic complexity, characterization, the magic of ideas, and...

Oh, wait. It didn't.

Well, why the heck didn't it? OK, there's been some progress in this direction too. Much of steampunk replaces magic with gadgetry and gosh-wow worldbuilding in a way that feels very fantasyesque, and some of the New Weird fantasists use magic only as a garnish, not a main course. But darn it, I want more.

6. Cross the Streams!


Pop quiz: what do FTL, life on other planets, and human-level artificial intelligence have in common?

Answer 1: they're staples of science fiction.

Answer 2: they're total fantasy.

They don't exist. They may never exist. These concepts might make a passing nod to theoretical physics or computer science, but in every other way they are real only in the excited imaginations of science geeks like me. For all intents and purposes, these things might as well be magic -- as many science fiction fans themselves are quick to point out.

Know what that means to me as a fantasy writer? Yeah, that's right. More for me.

Why should science fiction writers be the only ones who get to play with the shiny metal stuff? Or for that matter, the gory scary stuff? Combos of epic fantasy and SF or horror have been standard operating procedure for other media and genres for years: the Star Wars films, the Final Fantasy video games, Stephen King's Dark Tower oeuvre. Yet I rarely if ever see epic fantasy fiction incorporate the tropes of these other media. It's a shame, because when it's done right -- C.S. Friedman's "Coldfire" trilogy, for example -- it often makes standard fantasy subject matter feel very fresh. Another recent example is China Mieville, whose Bas Lag stories feature the ReMade (magically-created cyborgs or chimeras), aliens, and vampires.

We need more of this, I think. I want to see wizard astronauts. I want the Evil Overlord to be a Martian. I want to see spaceships powered by elves running on treadmills in the engine room --

Hmm. Maybe not that.

But the rest of it -- bring it on!


5. Acknowledgement of Ugliness.


A few years back Cecilia Dart-Thornton introduced The Ill-Made Mute, a rare female protagonist who was not pretty, and who got to have a love interest anyway. This isn't the kind of ugliness I mean, but in some ways it exemplifies a general problem in fantasy: the oversimplification and "prettification" of real life.

This happens on the macro scale as well as the micro. How many epic fantasy novels are centered around putting a deposed or anointed monarch on the throne as absolute ruler of all she surveys? In reality, most absolute monarchs were tyrants, perfectly willing to sacrifice their people in wars or poverty in order to increase their own wealth or power. They were inbred, emotionally and psychologically warped, more often than not puppets controlled by a quiet oligarchy. Destined kingships sound great in theory -- and in much of epic fantasy -- but the reality is far uglier.

This is not to say that I want to read a bunch of depressing novels about scullery-boys gaining a throne only to find themselves saddled with a hemophiliac wife, patricidal kids, and a hawkish advisory council that throws him under the bus when they lose a war. But I'm also tired of reading about good and noble kings who never have to deal with the reality of politics. I'm also tired of reading about feudalistic societies where the serfs are happy and well-fed and utterly loyal to their noble overlords. Good grief. That's a fairy tale, not epic fantasy.

That's one of the reasons I like Marie Brennan's Midnight Never Come, which is set in the twin courts of Queen Elizabeth and the faerie queen Invidiana. Both monarchs are scary -- egomaniacs with hair-trigger tempers. The members of their courts constantly walk on eggshells, and their loyalty is nothing more than intelligent self-interest. Everyone's in debt up to their eyeballs -- including the queen -- and no one has any delusions about justice or honor being the guiding principle of the state.

It's rich, grown-up stuff -- the kind of stuff I eat up. And I'm still hungry.

4. Scientific Rigor
.

I argued for this in another blog post recently, but I'll reiterate the basic point here: even fantasy needs to conform to the scientific basics. Far too many magical nonhuman species are badly-designed from an evolutionary and sociological standpoint, all looking, acting, and talking the same. Far too many fantasy heroes defy physics in ways that aren't magical, simply sloppy. For example, a guy in heavy armor riding on a horse bred for speed is probably going to kill that horse, because it's going to be small and not all that strong. Yet epic fantasy is full of warriors riding into battle on swift steeds. And while magic need not conform to natural law -- I'm perfectly OK with a wizard generating a thunderbolt out of nowhere, never mind conservation of energy -- there are limits to my willingness to suspend disbelief. If that wizard is standing in a pool of water, I'm going to laugh.


3. Human Societies with Realistic Complexity.

I've alluded to this in other points, but this part bears reiterating, I think. I want to see a realistic depiction of humanity. Just as much of epic fantasy tends to oversimplify the politics, science, and magic of fantasy worlds, sociocultural makeup has also been flattened. I can understand the temptation to do this. At most points in its history, ancient Scotland consisted of at least four different ethnic groups speaking three different languages and arranged in four or five social strata -- but who wants to worry about all that when you'd rather just write about cool Highlanders in kilts? Thing is, I think stories which acknowledge the realistic complexity of human societies are more interesting. How much cooler would that Highlander be if he could speak ten languages and had a Japanese sword?

(I'm such a geek.)

And let's just point right at the elephant in the room, here: diversity. Not just racial, though too often people assume that's all the term "diversity" covers. Real human societies contain old people, fat people, illiterate people, poor people, disabled people, and a thousand other forms of humanity. Real human societies trade with other human societies, and some of what gets traded is genetic material. Medieval Europe was actually pretty diverse along racial/cultural lines: not only were there the various cultures of Europe, but also present were traders from China via the Silk Road, Arabs and North Africans (when there wasn't a Crusade going on), Jewish craftsmen, etc. Epic fantasies set in medieval Europe should, IMO, incorporate all of this.

I think epic fantasy writers just need to remember this: regardles of what world/era your story is based on, 50% of the population will be female, not all the females will be beautiful ladies, not all the gentlemen will be interested in ladies, and some of the kids will probably be brown-skinned with curly hair.


2. Life After "Ever After".

OK, I grew up on fairy tales like most of you. And as a kid I loved them; they reassured me that the world was good or at least fixable, right and wrong were clear and simple, and finding a prince would solve all my problems.

Of course this doesn't satisfy me now. Yet still I see epic fantasy after epic fantasy that culminates with the same simplistic moral closure, and ends right when things should be getting really interesting. This is not to say that I want to see doorstopper novels dragging on interminably with epilogues and other unnecessary-to-the-plot bits. Those work occasionally -- Tolkien's "The Scouring of the Shire" at the end of the Lord of the Rings is a great example -- but few writers have his skill or keen understanding of when and how a coda should be added.

What I would rather see is stories which start where fairy tales leave off. Let's see a fantasy world recovering from a genocidal war like the one in LotR. How much more interesting would it be for a hero to go on a quest for a MacGuffin of Power... after another more celebrated hero has already attempted it and died trying? Or what if that more famous hero succeeded, but his MacGuffin is a fake, and no one believes Our Nobody when he inadvertently stumbles upon the real one? Better still, what if the famous hero knows his MacGuffin is bogus, but he doesn't want to give up fame and fortune, so he becomes a villain hunting down Our Nobody?

I've seen a few novels tackle this territory well, including Brian Sanderson's Mistborn books. But there should be more.


1. More, Well, Fantasy.


I may get boos and hisses for this one. But I'm marking it as number 1 because it's the thing I yearn to see most in epic fantasy: stories which discard the trappings of familiar cultures/myths. I want to see more authors just make stuff up. You would think this would be easy for us fantasistas, but it isn't; I think there's a certain amount of fear out there that audiences only want to see the tried and true. Or maybe it's not fear, but jadedness -- I've heard many a fellow writer trot out that old chestnut about there only being so many original stories, of which all others are merely variations on a theme. This may very well be true. But even if it is, is that any reason to quit trying?

Fantasy, even the elegant forms of epic fantasy, is fantasy; at its core, there's no single shape or tradition that it must adhere to. The sky's the limit (and since I'm suggesting that fantasy can and should go into space, even that shouldn't hold us back). So let's hear it for more originality! Then I'll have more fun stuff to read.



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Comments

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gweneiriol
Sep. 23rd, 2008 02:43 pm (UTC)
this is awesome! thanks for the list and all the good recs for authors and stories! :D
j_cheney
Sep. 23rd, 2008 02:59 pm (UTC)
Awesome list!!
mroctober
Sep. 23rd, 2008 03:19 pm (UTC)
So very well said!
p_sunshine
Sep. 23rd, 2008 04:02 pm (UTC)
Great post - I'm sticking a link to it on my book club's lj.
jenwrites
Sep. 23rd, 2008 04:37 pm (UTC)
I don't even read fantasy, and I still enjoyed this post. Mind you, the author helped ;)
swan_tower
Sep. 23rd, 2008 05:35 pm (UTC)
Well, if you're hungry for more books with egomaniac absolute monarchs whose subjects throw them under the bus without blinking, the sequel I'm about to turn in to my editor will make you very happy. <g>

As with Michele Lang's post yesterday, I pretty much have to ditto all of this. I think your definition of epic fantasy is broader than mine -- Swordspoint is lovely, but I wouldn't call it epic -- but that doesn't make your points any less valid. And I'm all about points 9, 5, 3, and 1; I could ramble on for an hour here, but I'll restrict myself to two links. First, I keep a list of fantasies that use non-standard settings, i.e. set themselves in or base themselves on cultures other than Celtic/Norse/feudal European mash. I'm all about people buying and reading more of those -- and if you know of more I should put on my list, please tell me! Second, pretty much everything I think about worldbuilding and its role in fantasy is summed up here. Short form: hi, I'm trained as an anthropologist. :-)

Man, I wish I were writing secondary-world fantasy right now. I love what I'm doing, but that itch really isn't getting scratched at the moment.

Eagerly awaiting The Hundred Thousand Kingdoms . . . .
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burger_eater
Sep. 23rd, 2008 06:03 pm (UTC)
This is the best entry yet. I'll be looking for this author's books next year.

Although I do want to respond to #9. As I understand it, authors don't write a lot of non-European settings because the readership isn't there.
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mythusmage
Sep. 23rd, 2008 06:11 pm (UTC)
Epic contemporary or contemporary epic?

And speaking of scientific rigor...

The oldest elf fossil is a fragment of skull cap dating back some 50,000 years. Most anthropaleontologists say it is entirely elfin, with no trace of human in it. A minority claim to see human traits, and rightly point out that modern elves still exhibit human traits.

The elf is now known to have risen in the Karelia of northern Russia, a small, rugged fellow with a large, sophisticated tool kit and an already deft hand in dweomercrafting. Though there are dissenters most researchers agree that the elven ability with stealth and stealth magic comes from their deadly association with the ogres who also appeared around this time and at this location.

Thanks to the work done by an ancient dragon naturalist we now know that the elves were not innocent victims of ogrish hunger, but hunters of ogres as much as the ogres hunted them. Both species hunted the other, and devised numerous recipes for elf or ogre meat preparation. The mutual ingestion of the other would not end until newly arriving orc tribes from the east started becoming a serious threat and the two peoples were forced into alliances of defense.

The neolithic meant many changes for the elves, for it was then that the elves witnessed the sudden, unexpected decline of the frost giants, a people who had enjoyed the benefits of the last ice age, and are thought by some to be largely responsible for it. Once the frost giants began to die off the elves found migration routes opening up and new lands becoming available for colonization. It was around this time that elf/ogre relations went through dramatic changes.

(All this exposition presented in the hope it gives people ideas. :) )
ehadams
Sep. 23rd, 2008 06:22 pm (UTC)
Great post. I look forward to reading your book. But Fall 2009 seems so far away!
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dsgood
Sep. 23rd, 2008 06:45 pm (UTC)
Note that even within Northern European folklore, there's a lot of unfamiliar material. The Hidden Folk may be devout Christians; the Cornish knockers might have Jewish ancestry. (I don't think either of these would sell well; but who knows?)
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dawn_metcalf
Sep. 23rd, 2008 08:14 pm (UTC)
Is it bad that I am literally jumping in my chair and clapping my hands because not only do I agree with you, but I've dedicated books to doing just these sort of things?!?

Oddly enough, there is much resistance. Critiquers want the alpha princess to end up with & bow to the beta male (ain't gonna happen -- too bad, folks!), I've had readers shy away from incorporating a traditional fantasy setting reflecting a multi-cultural diversity & there are those who outright abhor my overweight latina MC. ("Why can't she be pretty?" "She *IS* pretty and has the curves to prove it. She blames the clothes for not fitting her instead of her body not fitting them!")

On the bright side, the debut novel caught someone's eye BECAUSE it had cultural folklore and a lot of alpha femme goodness. Maybe there'll be something for after "happily ever after" too! I hope so.

Great list!!
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tsubaki_ny
Sep. 23rd, 2008 09:13 pm (UTC)
Thoroughly, utterly brilliant. I am LINKING LIKE WHOA. And I can't wait to read your series. Thank you!
sizztheseed
Sep. 23rd, 2008 10:00 pm (UTC)
Thanks for this well-thought-out and inspiring post. It covers so much of what I feel about epic fantasy today, and makes me want to read your new series. I look forward to that golden age that should have been.

You're right on the money that there's nothing wrong with comfort fantasy and the tried-and-true, but there is such a need for fantasy that challenges the reader to step away from the familiar and take a look at the stuff of life in an entirely new light. That's what makes me a fantasy fan, and everything on your list are things I'm looking for myself.

It gives me hope, it really does!
(Anonymous)
Sep. 24th, 2008 01:30 am (UTC)
Just wanted to point out that the author of Mistborn is Brandon Sanderson, not Brian Sanderson. Otherwise, great post.
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